VENTILATORS

A ventilator is a machine that provides mechanical ventilation by moving breathable air into and out of the lungs, to deliver breaths to a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently. Modern ventilators are computerized microprocessor-controlled machines, but patients can also be ventilated with a simple, hand-operated bag valve mask. Ventilators are chiefly used in intensive-care medicine, home care, and emergency medicine (as standalone units) and in anesthesiology (as a component of an anesthesia machine).

Category:

Description

Controls
CPAP
  • 4 – 20 cmH20 (passive leak port circuits)
IPAP
  • 50 cm H₂O
EPAP/PEEP (a)
  • 0 – 25 cmH20 (active valve circuits)
EPAP/PEEP (b)
  • 4 – 25 cmH20 (passive leak port circuits)
Pressure support
  • 0 – 30 cmH2O
Tidal volume
  • 50 – 2000 ml
Breath rate(a)
  • 0 – 60 BPM (AC mode) bpm
Breath rate(b)
  • 1 – 60 BPM (all other modes) bpm
Inspiratory time
  • 0.3 – 5.0 s Synchrony features
Rise time
  • 1 – 6 (relative scale)
Ramp start pressure (a)
  • 0 – 25 cmH20 (active circuits)
Ramp start pressure (b)
  • 4 – 25 cmH20 (passive circuits)
Ramp start pressure (c)
  • 4 – 19 cmH20 (CPAP mode)
Ramp time
  • off, 5 – 45 min
C-Flex
  • off, 1 – 3 (relative scale)
Flow trigger sensitivity
  • 1 – 9 l/min
Flow cycle sensitivity
  • 10 – 90 %
Environmental – HeartStart FRx
Operating temperature
  • 5 – 40 °C
Relative humidity
  • 15 – 95 %
Storage temperature
  • -20 – 60 °C
Atmospheric pressure
  • 60 – 110 kPa (450 – 825 mmHg)
Patient types
Adult
  • Yes
Pediatric
  • ≥ 5 kg or greater
Electrical – IntelliBridge EC40/80
Input voltage
  • 100 – 240 VAC and 50/60 Hz and 2.1 A
Detachable battery voltage
  • 14.4 VDC
Internal battery life
  • 3 hours under normal conditions
Detachable battery life
  • 3 hours under normal conditions
external battery connection
  • 12 VDC
Volume modes
Pressure control (PC)
  • Yes
MPV Mouthpiece Ventilation Mode
  • Yes
Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV)
  • Yes
SIMV with pressure support (SIMV w/PS)
  • Yes
Control ventilation (CV)
  • Yes
Alarms
Low tidal volume
  • off, 50 – 2000 ml
Circuit disconnect
  • off, 10 – 60 sec
Apnea
  • off, 10 – 60 s and 4 – 60 bpm
High tidal volume
  • off, 50 – 2000 ml
High minute ventilation
  • off, 1 – 99 l/min, 1 – 99 l/min
Low minute ventilation
  • off, 1 – 99 l/min
High respiratory rate
  • off, 4 – 80 bpm
Low respiratory rate
  • off, 4 – 80 bpm
Pressure modes
Pressure control (PC)
  • Yes
Pressure control-SIMV (PC-SIMV)
  • Yes
Spontaneous ventilation (S)
  • Yes
Spontaneous ventilation with timed back-up (S/T)
  • Yes
Timed ventilation (T)
  • Yes
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
  • Yes
Average volume assured pressure support (AVAPS)
  • With passive circuit type, S, S/T, PC, and T modes only
Options
Detachable back-up battery
  • Offering up to 3 hours additional operating time
Hospital roll stand
  • Provides convenient accessory basket and humidifier mount
DirectView
  • 1 GB SD card data storage integrated into the ventilator software
Monitored parameters
Tidal volume
  • 0 – 2000 ml
Minute ventilation
  • 0 – 99 l/min
Estimated leak rate
  • 0 – 200 l/min
Respiratory rate
  • 0 – 80 bpm
Peak inspiratory flow
  • 0 – 200 l/min
Peak inspiratory pressure
  • 0 – 99 cm H₂O
Mean airway pressure
  • 0 – 99 cm H₂O
% patient triggered breaths
  • 0 – 100 %
I:E ratio
  • 9.9:1 – 1:9.9
Synchrony features
Auto-Trak sensitivity
  • Auto-Trak sensitivity Auto-adaptive triggering, cycling, and leak compensation (available in all modes, passive circuit only)
Adjustable flow triggering
  • 1 – 9 l/min (available in all modes and circuit types)
Circuit types
Active exhalation valve with proximal airway pressure (PAP)
  • Yes
Active exhalation valve with flow sensor
  • Yes
Passive exhalation port
  • Yes
Compliance
IEC 60601-1 Medical electrical equipment Part 1: General requirements for safety
  • Yes
IEC 60601-1-2 General requirements for safety – collateral standard Electromagnetic compatibility – requirements and tests
  • Yes
IEC 60601-2-12 Medical electrical equipment Part 2-12: Particular requirements for the safety of lung ventilators – Critical Care ventilators
  • Yes
Oxygen
FiO2
  • 21 – 100 %
02 flush
  • 2 min at 100%
02 input pressure range
  • 276 – 600 kPa (40 – 87 psi)

Usage

A ventilator uses pressure to blow air—or air with extra oxygen—into your lungs. This pressure is known as positive pressure. You usually breathe out the air on your own, but sometimes the ventilator does this for you too.

A ventilator can be set to “breathe” a set number of times a minute. Sometimes it is set so that the machine only blows air into your lungs when you need it to help you breathe.

Before your healthcare team puts you on a ventilator, they may give you:

  • Fluids and other medicines through your vein (via IV) to help keep oxygen-rich blood flowing to your organs
  • Medicines to make you sleepy and to stop you from feeling pain
  • Oxygen through a mask

There are several ways to get air from the ventilator into your lungs. You may wear a mask or helmet, or you may need a breathing tube.